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Notes & References:

Appendix 2

Technical Details

People

Limitations of data: The family data presented in this report relates to families within households. In official statistics, a family is defined as two or more people living in the same household who comprise either a couple, with or without children, or one parent and their children. The children do not have partners or children of their own living in the same household. People who were temporarily away from home on census night are included as part of the family. There is no data available on parents and children who live in different households.

Data sources: Population size and growth: Statistics New Zealand, National Population Estimates Information Release; Census of Population and Dwellings; National Population Projections, 2004(base), mid-range Series 5, assuming medium fertility, medium mortality, long-term annual net migration gain of 10,000, Series 6 (low fertility), assuming medium mortality and net migration gain of 10,000, Series 6 (high migration), assuming medium fertility and mortality; External Migration Information Release, INFOS series VTBA.SJT (natural increase) and EMIQ.S3E (net migration).

Overseas-born: Statistics New Zealand (2007) QuickStats About Culture and Identity, 2006 Census, Tables 6, 7, 12, and 13.

Fertility: Statistics New Zealand (2007a) Birth Tables: Age-specific Fertility Rates for the Total and Māori Populations. International comparison for total fertility rate and teenage (under 20) fertility rate: Demographic Trends 2006, Table 2.12, latest years available; 2005 England and Wales data from UK Office for National Statistics (2006) Birth Statistics, 2005, Tables 1.4 and 3.1.

Geographic and ethnic distribution of the population: Statistics New Zealand (2002) 2001 Census: Regional Summary, Table 2; Statistics New Zealand (2006) 2006 Census Regional Summary Tables 1, 2; Ethnic Population Projections, 2004(base). Urban/rural distribution: Statistics New Zealand, 2006 Census, unpublished data.

Age and sex structure of the population: Statistics New Zealand, National Population Estimates by single year of age, mean for the year ended December 2006, National Population Estimates Information Release. Median age by ethnic group: Statistics New Zealand, 2006 Census, unpublished data.

Household structure: Statistics New Zealand, 1996 Census: Families and Households, Table 1; 2001 Census: National Summary, Table 36; 2006 Census, Classification Counts, Table 55.

Housing tenure: Statistics New Zealand (2002) 2001 Census National Summary, Tables 20, 41; Statistics New Zealand (2006) QuickStats About New Zealand's Population and Dwellings, 2006 Census; and unpublished 2006 Census data.

Families with dependent children: Table P4: Families with dependent children, by family type, 1976 to 2006; Statistics New Zealand, 1976, 1981, 1986, unpublished census data; 1991 Census: New Zealanders at Home, Tables 16, 17; 1996 Census: Families and Households, Tables 16, 21, 26; 2001 Census: Families and Households, Tables 13, 24; 2006 Census, unpublished data. International comparison data: UK: Office for National Statistics (2005) Focus on Families, Table 1.2: Families: by type and presence of children, 2004 (families with dependent children); US: Census Bureau (2007) Current Population Survey Reports, 2006 March CPS, America’s Families and Living Arrangements, Table FG7, Family groups with own children under 18; Australia: Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian Social Trends, 2006, Family and Community: National Summary, Living Arrangements (families with children under 15); Canada: Statistics Canada, 2001 Census, Cat. No 95F0316XCB01004, Families with children under 18.

Official languages: Statistics New Zealand (2007) QuickStats About Culture and Identity, 2006 Census, Tables 15, 17, 19, 22 and 23.

People with disability: Statistics New Zealand (2001a) Disability Counts, Tables 1.01a, 1.02a. Ministry of Health (2004c) Living with Disability in New Zealand, Tables 4.29, 5.25.

Same-sex couples: Statistics New Zealand 2001 Census: Families and Households, Tables 7, 11; Statistics New Zealand (2006) 2006 Census, Classification Counts, Table 63. Note: The number of adults has been derived by multiplying the number of couples by two.

Health

H1 Health expectancy

Definition/formulae: The total number of years a newborn can expect to live without any self-reported functional limitation requiring the assistance of another person or a complex assistive device.

Notes:

  1. The 2001 estimates have been revised following the official release of the 2000–2002 complete life tables in March 2004.
  2. Independent life expectancy estimates for 1996 have been revised slightly, reflecting changes to the smoothing method required for the 2001 data and the release of the 2000–2002 complete life tables.
  3. Māori and non-Māori rates are based on estimates for ages 0–85 years because of the small number of Māori aged over 85 years, and are referred to here as "partial" independent life expectancies.

Limitations of data: The ability to monitor health expectancy on a regular basis depends on the availability of information about disability and levels of disability (ie the post-census disability survey).

This measure of health expectancy (called independent life expectancy in The Social Report 2003) has inherent limitations as a population health indicator. An indicator that included all levels of disability – not just a single dependency threshold – would provide a more precise measure of health (ie a health-adjusted life expectancy). The social preferences (disability weights) needed to construct such an indicator are not available for New Zealand.

Data source: Ministry of Health, revised data.

H2 Life expectancy

Definition/formulae: The expected number of years a person would live if they were subject throughout their lives to the current age-specific mortality rates.

Note: Ethnic-specific estimates for the period 1980–1982 to 1995–1997 have been adjusted for undercounting in the ethnic mortality statistics by linking census to mortality records. They were revised after the official release of the 2000–2002 complete life tables in March 2004. The figures differ from those published by Statistics New Zealand for the same period and are not comparable with earlier estimates.

The analysis associating life expectancy with levels of deprivation is based on the NZDep2001, a small-area index of deprivation based on a principal-component analysis of nine socio-economic variables from the 2001 Census. The index has been converted to a scale ranging from 1 to 10, where 1 represents the least deprived 10 percent of small areas, and 10 represents the most deprived 10 percent. The small areas are about the size of a census meshblock and have populations of approximately 100 people.      

Limitations of data: Available annually only for the total population. Official Māori/non-Māori data is available five-yearly only, based on a three-year period around census years.

Data sources: Statistics New Zealand (2007f) New Zealand Abridged Life Table: 2004–2006 abridged life tables; Statistics New Zealand (2004c) New Zealand Life Tables: 2000–2002, Table 1; Statistics New Zealand (2007b) Information Release, Births and Deaths: December 2006 quarter (www.stats.nz). Ministry of Health (ethnic-specific data for 1985–1987, 1990–1992); Ministry of Health (1999a) Our Health, Our Future: Hauora Pakari, Koiora Roa, The Health of New Zealanders 1999, Chapter 2. Tobias and Cheung (2003) Monitoring Health Inequalities: Life Expectancy and Small Area Deprivation in New Zealand, Table 3. OECD (2006c) OECD Health Data 2006, Frequently requested statistics. 

H3 Suicide

Definition/formulae: The number of suicide deaths per 100,000 population, expressed as a three-year moving average age-standardised rate, for the population aged 5 years and over.

Age-standardised to the World Health Organization standard population.

Note: The figures for 2004 are provisional and subject to revision.

Limitations of data: Because suicide is a relatively rare event in statistical terms, rates of suicide can vary markedly from year to year. Any interpretation of trends requires an examination of rates over several years. Deaths by suicide are subject to a coroner’s inquiry and can only be officially deemed suicide once an inquest is complete. This means there can be a considerable delay in the publication of the final statistics.

Data on the rates of suicide for geographical regions and cities may be of little value for reporting comparisons because of the low numbers, and hence highly variable suicide rates. For example, where populations are small, the rate of suicide can be greatly inflated by one or two deaths.

Data on attempted suicide is available only for those admitted to hospital as inpatients or day patients for self-inflicted injury. Those cared for in hospital but not admitted and those cared for by primary or community care services are not reported. Therefore, the actual rate of attempted suicide is likely to be much higher than that reported in official statistics.

Comparability over time is affected by a change in the population concept in 1991 (from de facto to resident). Because of a change in the ethnicity classification in 1995, comparable data is available only from 1996 onwards. Ethnic-specific mortality data is also subject to some uncertainty due to the differences in collection across different providers.

A comparison of international trends in suicide is problematic due to the different methods used to classify suicide. The New Zealand age-standardised rate in the international comparison data has been calculated in a manner consistent with the international figures available, and may differ slightly from the rates presented elsewhere (Ministry of Health, 2006a, p 15).

Data sources: Ministry of Health (2006a) Suicide Facts: 2004–2005 data; Ministry of Health, New Zealand Health Information Service (unpublished tables); Ministry of Health (2006b) Suicide Facts: Provisional 2003 Statistics (all ages); Beautrais (2000) Restricting Access to Means of Suicide in New Zealand: A Report Prepared for the Ministry of Health on Methods of Suicide in New Zealand. World Health Organization (2004).

H4 Cigarette smoking

Definition/formulae: The proportion of the population aged 15 years and over who ever smoke any ready-made cigarettes or roll-your-own tobacco cigarettes. Up until 2005, information on smoking prevalence was collected from quarterly surveys conducted by ACNielsen Ltd and reported by the Ministry of Health. The historic rates are all crude rates. In 2006 the data came from the New Zealand Tobacco Use Survey (NZTUS) which was run for the first time in the first quarter of 2006. 

Ethnic rates are age-standardised using the WHO world population.

Limitations of data: The international comparison is affected by differences in the collection and classification of the data. The classification of ethnicity information changed from 1997 onwards. Therefore, ethnic-specific data before and after 1997 may not be comparable.
The 2003 data was collected from people aged 18 years and over and adjusted for the expected proportion of smokers 15–24 years of age.

Data sources: Ministry of Health (2006c) Tobacco Trends 2006: Monitoring tobacco use in New Zealand. OECD (2006c) OECD Health Data 2006, Frequently requested data: Tobacco consumption: % of daily smokers among adult population. Statistics New Zealand (2007) Alcohol and Tobacco Available for Consumption, Year Ended December 2006, Information Release; Statistics New Zealand, Estimated resident population, mean year ended December.

H5 Obesity

Definition/formulae: Obesity is defined as the accumulation of excess body fat to the extent that health is adversely affected (WHO 2000). It is measured using a Body Mass Index (BMI) which is calculated by dividing weight (in kilograms) by height (in metres) squared. Adults with a BMI greater than 30 kg/m2 are classified as obese. In the 1997 National Nutrition Survey and in the 2002/2003 New Zealand Health Survey, the cut-off for Māori and Pacific peoples was set slightly higher, at 32 kg/m2. For children, the measure is the proportion of 5–14 year olds whose BMI (weight/height2) meets the international definition of obesity established by Cole et al (2000). The definition adapts the widely used cut-off point for adults (30kg/m2) to produce age- and sex-specific cut-offs for children and youth aged 2–18 years.

Information on obesity is based on the 2002/2003 New Zealand Health Survey, the 1997 National Nutrition survey, the 2002 National Children’s Nutrition Survey, the 1989/1990 Life in New Zealand (LINZ) Study, and the 1977 National Diet Survey. Although there was some variation in survey design and response rates, as well as in height and weight measurement methods, these surveys are considered to be reasonably comparable.

Limitations of data: The cut-off level is arbitrary and does not necessarily correspond to levels of health risk. There is some debate about whether a separate cut-off for Māori and Pacific peoples is warranted. The 1989/1990 data for Māori should be viewed with caution as the number of Māori in the survey was small.

Data sources: Ministry of Health (2004a) A Portrait of Health: Key Results of the 2002/2003 New Zealand Health Survey; Ministry of Health (2004b) Tracking the Obesity Epidemic: New Zealand 1977–2003; Ministry of Health (2002) An Indication of New Zealanders’ Health; Ministry of Health (1999b) NZ Food: NZ People; Ministry of Health (2003c) NZ Food, NZ Children: Key results of the 2002 National Children’s Nutrition Survey. OECD (2005c) OECD Health Data 2006, Frequently requested data: Obesity.

Knowledge and Skills

K1 Participation in early childhood education

Definition/formulae: The number of children aged 3 and 4 years enrolled in early childhood education (ECE) programmes as a proportion of the estimated population aged 3 and 4 years. ECE programmes include: licensed ECE services (kindergartens, playcentres, education and care services, home-based services, casual education and care (no regular roll), correspondence school and te köhanga reo); licence-exempt ECE services (early childhood development funded playgroups, Pacific peoples early childhood groups, and playcentres); and licence-exempt köhanga reo.

Limitations of data: Rates of participation are only "apparent" because children may be enrolled in more than one ECE centre. The rates therefore may be inflated. The measure does not provide information on the length of participation or on the quality of the programmes, both of which are relevant to positive educational outcomes. The methodology used for dealing with licence-exempt ECE groups that did not provide data has changed for 2006. As a result, enrolment figures for 2006 are not directly comparable with 2005 for licence-exempt ECE groups.

Data sources: Ministry of Education, Early Childhood Education, Licensed Services and Licence-Exempt Groups 2006, Ministry of Education, Prior participation in early childhood education: new entrants, Ministry of Education (various years) Education Statistics of New Zealand, Education Statistics News Sheet, v 10, no 1, March 2001; unpublished tables.

K2 School leavers with higher qualifications

Definition/formulae: The proportion of secondary school leavers who left school with a qualification at National Certificate of Educational Achievement (NCEA) Level 2 or above.

In Figure K2.1, the data up to 2002 includes school leavers with:

  • National Certificate Level 4
  • A or B Bursary/National Certificate Level 3
  • Entrance Qualification/42 or more credits National Certificate Level 3 or above/Accelerated Christian Education Certificate or overseas award at Year 13 Level
  • Higher School Certificate/14–41 credits National Certificate Level 3 or above
  • National Certificate Level 2/1–13 credits National Certificate Level 3 or above.

The data for 2003 also includes leavers who attained NCEA Level 2.

The data for 2005 and 2006 includes qualifications at NCEA Level 2 or above.

Limitations of data: School leaver data collection was changed as a result of the introduction of NCEA in 2002. A direct comparison cannot be made between rates up to and including 2002 with rates for 2003 on, due to the change in the qualification structure. Previous qualifications, such as School Certificate, were awarded to students if they had completed the assessment and met attendance requirements, independent of the grade awarded. The new qualification structure is designed to award students credits when they have met achievement rather than participation criteria.

Data sources: Ministry of Education (various years) Education Statistics of New Zealand ; Ministry of Education website, School Leaver Statistics; Ministry of Education, Education Counts website, School Leaver statistics, Ministry of Education (2006) School leavers with NCEA Level 2 or above; unpublished data from the Ministry of Education.

K3 Participation in tertiary education

Definition/formulae: Participation in tertiary education is calculated by the number of students aged 15 years and over enrolled with a tertiary education provider (see below) at any time during the year in formal qualifications (or programmes of study) of greater than 0.03 Equivalent Full-time Tertiary Study (EFTS). The data excludes all non-formal learning, on-the-job industry training and private training establishments that did not receive tuition subsidies or were not approved for student loans and allowances. Domestic students only are included.

Modern Apprenticeship students who are studying courses that fit into the above definition are included in the statistics (typically, doing block courses at a polytechnic). If their learning is totally on the job, they will not be included.

Community education courses are excluded from the statistics.

Public tertiary education institutions include: universities, polytechnics, colleges of education, and wānanga. Private tertiary education consists of: private providers receiving a tuition subsidy, private providers with qualifications approved for loans and allowances, private providers receiving a Ministry of Education grant, and other private providers registered with the New Zealand Qualifications Authority.

Limitations of data: The data in this report relates to students enrolled at any time during the year (from 1994). In previous social reports, it related to students enrolled at 31 July in each year. Therefore, the data in this indicator is not comparable with that in previous social reports.

Changes in the number of institutions, the status of institutions, and the types of courses offered affect comparisons over time.

Data sources: Ministry of Education website, Tertiary Statistics; Ministry of Education (2002a) Participation in Tertiary Education, August 2002; Education Statistics of New Zealand for 2001; Ministry of Education (2007), Tertiary Education Enrolments – 2006; Ministry of Education, Education Counts EdCentre (2007) Provider-based enrolments, Tables ENR2, ENR4, ENR5, ENR9; Participation Rates, Tables PPN1, PPN5, PPN7, downloaded from http://www.educationcounts.edcentre.govt.nz/ on 15 May 2007. OECD (2006a) Education at a Glance 2006, Table C1.2.

K4 Educational attainment of the adult population

Definition/formulae: The proportion of adults aged 25–64 years with an educational attainment of at least upper secondary school level, defined in the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED 1997) as Level 3 and above, and including tertiary qualifications at bachelor’s degree and above (Level 5A/6).

ISCED 3 includes: local polytechnic certificate or diploma, trade certificate or advanced trade certificate, University Bursary, Scholarship, Higher School Certificate, Sixth Form Certificate, University Entrance in one or more subjects, School Certificate in one or more subjects, other school qualification.

ISCED 4 includes: technician’s certificate, New Zealand certificate or diploma, and other specified tertiary (the latter was previously included in 5B).

ISCED 5B includes: university certificate or diploma, teacher’s certificate or diploma, nursing certificate or diploma.

ISCED 5A/6 includes: post-graduate degree, certificate or diploma, bachelor’s degree.

Limitations of data: The data for this indicator is different from that shown in previous social reports because it refers to December years (previously it was for June years). This change was made to align the indicator with other indicators based on data from the Household Labour Force Survey.

Statistical weights used to rate sample data up to population estimates are updated every five years following each population census. This requires a revision of historical data. The latest revision was in June 2004.

Statistics New Zealand has recently recoded "other specified tertiary" from Level 5B to Level 4. This change should not have affected the data in this indicator. 

The international comparison of the adult population with "at least upper secondary education" should be viewed with caution. There are substantial differences in the typical duration of ISCED 3 programmes between countries, ranging from two to five years of secondary schooling. The Tertiary Level A (bachelor’s degree and above) comparison is more robust.

Data sources: Statistics New Zealand, Household Labour Force Survey, unpublished tables. OECD (2006a) Education at a Glance 2006, Tables A1.2a, A1.2b, A1.2c (at least upper secondary education) and A1.3a, A1.3b, A1.3c (Tertiary-type A and advanced research programmes), downloaded from the internet 24 April 2007.

Paid Work

PW1 Unemployment

Definition/formulae: The proportion of the labour force (aged 15 years and over) that is unemployed. The labour force is the sum of those defined as employed and those defined as unemployed. Hence the unemployment rate is defined as unemployed/(employed and unemployed). The unemployed are defined in the Household Labour Force Survey as those who are without a paid job (or unpaid work in a relative’s business) and who have actively sought work in the four weeks before the survey and who are available to take work. "Actively seeking" includes any actions such as contacting an employer, asking friends and relatives and contacting an employment agency or Work and Income but excludes those who have only checked newspaper advertisements.

Standardised unemployment rates used for international comparison are seasonally-adjusted rates.

Limitations of data: Data is based on a sample survey and is therefore subject to sampling error. The definition of the unemployed excludes some people who regard themselves as unemployed, including the "discouraged unemployed" – those not meeting the "actively seeking work" criterion. This group is classified in the "not in the labour force" category. The unemployment rate also excludes those who have part-time employment but who are seeking to work more hours.

Data sources: Statistics New Zealand (2007d) Household Labour Force Survey. OECD Frequently Requested Statistics, Standardised Unemployment Rate, downloaded from www.oecd.org on 9 May 2007; OECD (2006b) OECD Employment Outlook, 2006, Statistical Annex, Table G p 267.

PW2 Employment

Definition/formulae: The proportion of the population aged 15–64 years employed for at least one hour per week. The employed are those who worked for pay or profit for one hour or more in the week before the survey or who worked unpaid in a relative’s business or who have a job but did not work that week because of leave, sickness or industrial disputes. The definition used here relates to the population aged 15–64 years, rather than to those aged 15 years and over; otherwise results are skewed by differences in the proportions of the sub-populations over 65 years, particularly when comparing males with females and comparing different ethnic groups.

Limitations of data: As above, data is subject to sampling error. The definition of employment includes those working one hour or more per week, so this will include some people who are likely to regard their status as closer to unemployment than to employment. For example, people on the unemployment benefit and searching for work but working a few hours a week will be counted as employed.

Data sources: Statistics New Zealand (2007d) Household Labour Force Survey. The Household Labour Force Survey figures were rebased using the latest census information in the June 2004 quarter. The data for all quarters was revised and there may be some differences between the numbers in this report and those published in earlier editions. OECD (2006b) OECD Employment Outlook, 2006, Statistical Annex, Table B pp 248–250.

PW3 Median hourly earnings

Definition/formulae: Median hourly earnings for employees earning income from wage and salary jobs as measured by the New Zealand Income Survey, an annual supplement to the Household Labour Force Survey.

Limitations of data: The final data set consists of approximately 28,000 valid person records including 4,000 imputed person records. Hourly earnings relate to the number of hours usually worked and the usual income rather than to the number of hours actually worked and the actual income. Proxy interviewing may be used to collect data on income under certain circumstances. Estimates from sample surveys are subject to error.

Data sources: Statistics New Zealand (2006g) New Zealand Income Survey, Hot Off the Press, June 1997 to June 2003 (revised), June 2004 to June 2006 Table 10, and unpublished data derived by the Ministry of Social Development.

PW4 Workplace injury claims

Definition/formulae: The number of work-related accident claims reported to the ACC per 1,000 full-time equivalent employees (one part-time employee = 0.5 full-time employee).

Full-time equivalent employee data is as estimated by Statistics New Zealand's Household Labour Force Survey.

Limitations of data: The data does not include workplace accidents where no claim was made to the ACC. In some cases, there are also delays from when the accident happened to when the claim is reported to the ACC. For example, there were 240,500 injuries reported for the 2003 calendar year by March 2004, and 246,600 by March 2005, an increase of 3 percent.

Information on workplace injuries for 2005 is based on a new set of indicators developed by Statistics New Zealand. Comparable figures are available for 2001–2004 but information from these years is not directly comparable with previous figures on workplace injuries. The data for 2002–2004 was revised by Statistics New Zealand in 2006.

Data source: Statistics New Zealand (2006a) Injury Statistics – Claims for Work-Related Injuries (2005), Information Release.

PW5 Satisfaction with work-life balance

Definition/formulae: The proportion of employed people who are "satisfied" or "very satisfied" with their work-life balance according to the Quality of Life Survey 2006.

Limitations of data: Subjective measures of wellbeing reflect people’s perceptions of their own situation, which may differ from their objective status. The survey had a low response rate (22 percent) which means care should be taken in interpreting the data.

Note: Ethnicity is based on multiple responses and is sourced from unpublished tables produced by the Ministry of Social Development.

Data source: Quality of Life Survey 2006. The survey was commissioned by 12 of New Zealand's cities and districts, in partnership with the Ministry of Social Development, to monitor trends in wellbeing. The total (national) sample size in the 2006 survey was 7,720, which has a maximum margin of error of +/- 1.1 percent at the 95 percent confidence interval. Interviews were conducted to meet gender, ethnicity, age and ward/region quotas to ensure the sample was representative of the New Zealand population as a whole.

Economic Standard of Living

EC1 Market income per person

Definition/formulae: Real Gross National Disposable Income (RGNDI) measures the real purchasing power of the net income of New Zealand residents from both domestic and overseas sources, after taking account of income resulting from international transfers. GNDI is Gross National Income (GNI), previously called Gross National Product (GNP), plus net international transfers. Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per person (as used in the OECD comparisons) is real income produced inside the New Zealand national boundary, excluding the international transfers included in GNDI.

Derivation of RGNDI: In the published tables, RGNDI is calculated as follows: constant price gross domestic product (production-based measure) plus constant price trading gain/loss plus constant price total net income and transfers. Constant price trading gain/loss is defined as current price exports divided by the imports implicit price index less constant price exports. Constant price total net income and transfers equals investment income credits less investment income debits plus transfers credits less transfers debits, all divided by the imports implicit price index.

Limitations of data: Major limitations to the use of RGNDI as an indicator of wellbeing include its failure to include non-marketed (and, therefore, non-priced) activities (barring the exception of imputed rentals on owner-occupied dwellings). RGNDI provides no information on income distribution. Finally, evidence suggests monetary measures have a very weak cross-sectional and a limited time series correlation with self-assessed measures of wellbeing.

Note: The use of real GDP for OECD comparisons may over-state New Zealand's relative position because of New Zealand's growing and high per capita net external debt.

Data sources: Statistics New Zealand, Real GNDI per capita, INFOS series SNCA.S6RB06NZ; Statistics New Zealand (2001c) Measuring Unpaid Work in New Zealand 1999 Table 1 p 15, Table 4 p 17. OECD (2007a) National Accounts of OECD Countries, Main Aggregates, Volume 1, 1994–2005, Part III, Comparative Tables based on PPPs, Table B5: Gross domestic product per head at current prices and current PPPs (US dollars), and Table B7: Gross domestic product per head at the price levels and PPPs of 2000 (US dollars); OECD (2007) OECD Factbook 2007: Economic, Environmental and Social Statistics, Gross national income per capita, time series table from Statlink on p 29.

EC2 Income inequality

Definition/formulae: The ratio of the 80th percentile of equivalised disposable household income to the 20th percentile of equivalised disposable household income. This indicator takes into account household size and composition. For international comparisons, we have compared Gini co-efficients.

Adjustment for family size was made by means of a per capita equivalisation process based on the 1988 Revised Jensen Equivalence Scale.

Limitations of data: International comparisons have been made with data from years around 2000.

Data sources: Statistics New Zealand Household Economic Survey. (Access to the data used in this study was provided by Statistics New Zealand under conditions designed to give effect to the confidentiality provisions of the Statistics Act 1975. The results presented in this study are the work of the Ministry of Social Policy/Ministry of Social Development.) Forster M and d’Ercole M M (2005) Income Distribution and Poverty in OECD Countries in the Second Half of the 1990s, OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers No 22.

EC3 Population with low incomes

Definition/formulae: The income measure used is equivalised disposable household income after deducting housing costs. Equivalised disposable household income is the total income from all sources for all individuals in the household, after deducting tax, and adjusting for household size and composition.

The adjustment for household size and composition is based on the 1988 Revised Jensen Equivalence Scale.

Housing costs is the sum of annualised accommodation expenditure (includes mortgage payments (principal and interest), payments to local authorities, property rent, rent of a private dwelling, boarding house, and student accommodation not paid with formal fees). In this indicator the Accommodation Supplement is counted as income.

Individuals are ranked by their household’s equivalised disposable income (after deducting housing costs).

The two low-income thresholds used are of the "fixed line" type, set at 50 percent and 60 percent of the 1998 median household disposable income, less 25 percent to allow for average housing costs. The two thresholds are held constant in real terms by an adjustment using the CPI. (See Perry (2007) for further detail – especially Appendices 4 and 5.)

Individuals are grouped according to selected individual, family or household characteristics for the different analyses. For this indicator, family means one or two parent families with dependent children, whether living in a separate household or with others in a wider household. 

The ethnicity of individuals aged 15 years and over is as reported by the individual. Children under 15 years are attributed with the ethnicity of the survey respondent.

The methodology used to calculate the figures used in the international comparison section follows that used by the OECD: the income concept is equivalised household disposable income; the equivalence scale is the square root scale (ie equivalence scale elasticity = 0.5); equivalent household income is attributed to all individuals in the household; individuals are ranked by their attributed equivalent disposable income to get the median for that year; the threshold is set at 50 percent of this (contemporary) median, a "moving line" approach. There is no adjustment for housing costs.

Limitations of data: The equivalised disposable income measure (whether before or after deducting housing costs) is taken as an indicator of a household’s access to economic resources or of its potential living standards, all else being equal. The measure is an imperfect indicator of actual living standards, which are influenced by factors other than current income and housing cost. People with the same current income level can have different standards of living as a result of their different net assets, the extent to which they receive assistance from others, and the extent to which they have atypical expenditure commitments (eg unusually high medical costs, debt repayments, transport costs and electricity costs). People who experience a lengthy period of very low income are likely to have different life outcomes to those who experience only a transient episode.

Note: The measures have been constructed using the household as the income-sharing unit, in line with international best practice. Previous social reports used the "economic family unit" as the income-sharing unit. The figures used in The Social Report 2007, therefore, differ a little from those in previous editions, although trends over time remain unchanged.

Data sources: Statistics New Zealand Household Economic Survey. (Access to the data used in this study was provided by Statistics New Zealand under conditions designed to give effect to the confidentiality provisions of the Statistics Act 1975. The results presented in this study are the work of the Ministry of Social Development (see Perry B (2007) Household incomes in New Zealand : trends in indicators of inequality and hardship, 1982 to 2004).) Forster M and d’Ercole M M (2005) Income Distribution and Poverty in OECD Countries in the Second Half of the 1990s, OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers No 22.

EC4 Housing affordability

Definition/formulae: The proportion of households and the proportion of people within households with housing cost outgoings-to-income ratio greater than 30 percent.

Household incomes have been equivalised using the 1988 Revised Jensen Equivalence Scale.

Housing costs are the sum of annualised accommodation expenditure (includes mortgage payments (principal and interest), payments to local authorities, property rent, rent of a private dwelling, boarding house and student accommodation not paid with formal fees). In this indicator the Accommodation Supplement is counted as income.

Limitations of data: Measures of housing affordability do not shed light on the issues of housing quality, suitability or sustainability; nor do they explain why affordability problems may exist, or the extent to which inadequate housing is occupied to avoid affordability problems. Furthermore, marginally-housed families are often hidden from official statistics and are not counted among those with an affordability problem.
Household ethnicity is defined in this indicator by the presence of an adult of a particular ethnic group. The figures for households defined in this way are not mutually exclusive.

Data source: Derived from the Statistics New Zealand Household Economic Survey by the Ministry of Social Development.

EC5 Household crowding

Definition/formulae: The Canadian National Occupancy standard sets the bedroom requirements of a household according to the following compositional criteria:

  • There should be no more than two people per bedroom
  • Parents or couples share a bedroom
  • Children under 5 years, either of the same or of the opposite sex, may reasonably share a bedroom
  • Children under 18 years of the same sex may reasonably share a bedroom
  • A child aged 5–17 years should not share a bedroom with one under 5 of the opposite sex
  • Single adults 18 years and over and any unpaired children require a separate bedroom.

Limitations of data: There is no contemporary official statistic or index of household crowding in New Zealand. There are many frameworks or models used in many countries for analysing the incidence of crowding. It is unlikely any single measure of crowding could adequately summarise such a complex and multi-faceted issue as crowding.

There is no definitive evidence crowding leads to negative social outcomes, but there are associations between living in crowded circumstances and negative outcomes. The mechanisms by which these outcomes result are not clear.

The Canadian Crowding Index is not an objective index of crowding. The extent to which household members will perceive themselves as living in crowded circumstances is dependent on many factors including social and cultural expectations. Furthermore, it cannot be assumed households requiring one or more additional bedrooms (based on the Canadian index) will suffer negative social outcomes.

The Canadian Crowding Index is used here as it is both sensitive to household size and composition. The measure sets a bedroom requirement for households based on precise criteria.

Data sources: Statistics New Zealand (1998) New Zealand Now – Housing, pp 56–63; Statistics New Zealand, unpublished data from the 1986, 1991, 2001 and 2006 population censuses.

Civil and Political Rights

CP1 Voter turnout

Definition/formulae: The total number of votes cast is divided by the estimated number of people who would have been eligible to vote (voting-age population) on election day, and expressed as a percentage. To be eligible to vote, a person must be at least 18 years old and meet residential and certain other criteria.

Limitations of data: The voting-age population is based on population estimates that are subject to revision. The 1984 figure is based on the estimated de facto population aged 18 years and over, as at 30 June 1984.

Data sources: Electoral Commission (2005) Statistics New Zealand, estimated de facto population by age. Department of Internal Affairs (2006) Local Authority Election Statistics 2004. Inter-Parliamentary Union (2006a) PARLINE Database, Last election.

CP2 Representation of women in government

Definition/formulae: The proportion of elected Members of Parliament and local government bodies who are women.

Data sources: Electoral Commission (2002) The New Zealand Electoral Compendium, 3rd edition. Department of Internal Affairs (2006) Local Authority Election Statistics 2004. Inter-Parliamentary Union (2007b) Women in National Parliaments, Situation as of 31 March 2007.

CP3 Perceived discrimination

Definition/formulae: The proportion of people aged 18 years and over who perceived selected groups as being the targets of discrimination (ie subject to "some discrimination" or "a great deal of discrimination").

Limitations of data: Surveys on perceived discrimination do not measure actual levels of discrimination against groups.

The margin of error for a 50 percent figure at the 95 percent confidence level is 3.6 percent.

Data source: Human Rights Commission Omnibus Results (Feb 2006).

CP4 Perceived corruption

Definition/formulae: The degree of corruption perceived to exist among New Zealand politicians and public officials according to surveys of business people, academics and risk analysts is used by Transparency International to construct the Corruption Perceptions Index. Corruption is defined as the "abuse of public office for private gain". Scores range from 0 (highly corrupt) to 10 (highly clean).

Due to a small change in methodology, the index no longer reflects a three-year rolling average of pooled survey results, but now uses only two years of data. The reason for this change was to improve topicality; it may enable individual country assessments to reflect recent developments without lowering measurement precision. 

The Corruption Perceptions Index 2006 was based on data from 2005 and 2006 drawn from 12 different polls and surveys from nine independent institutions. The New Zealand data was drawn from seven surveys and the overall score of 9.6 was within a confidence range of 9.4–9.6.

Limitations of data: The Corruption Perceptions Index score is a subjective measure; there is no hard empirical data on levels of corruption that can be used for cross-country comparison. The index was not designed to provide comparisons over time, since each year the surveys included in the index vary. The index is a relative measure: New Zealand's ranking depends not only on perceptions of corruption in New Zealand but also on perceptions of corruption in the other countries surveyed. If comparisons with earlier years are made, they should be based on a country’s score, not its rank.

Data source: Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index 2006.

Cultural Identity

CI1 Local content programming on New Zealand television

Definition/formulae: The hours of local content broadcast on TV One, TV2, TV3 (to 2004), Prime Television, Māori Television (from 2005) and C4 (from 2006) in prime time, expressed as a percentage of the total prime-time schedule. New Zealand content programming includes first runs and repeats across all six channels.

Limitations of data: The number of local content hours broadcast on other free-to-air or pay channels is not included in the data presented here. Up until 2002, the hours data in Table CI1.1 was measured over 24 hours; from 2003 onwards it was measured over 18 hours (6am to midnight).

Data sources: NZ On Air (2007) Local Content, New Zealand Television, 2006 [May 2007]; NZ On Air (1999) Local Content and Diversity: Television in Ten Countries.

CI2 Māori language speakers

Definition/formulae: Māori language speakers as a proportion of the Māori ethnic group. Māori language speakers are defined as those able to hold a conversation about everyday things in Māori.

Limitations of data: The data relies on self-assessment rather than measuring the actual level of fluency in the population. The census data comes from a single question about conversational language ability. More detailed information on the level of fluency among Māori language speakers is available from two nationwide surveys done in 2001 and 2006. This data is not directly comparable with the census data because of differences in the samples and methodology. For example, the Māori language surveys used face-to-face interviews, asked a range of questions about language skill, and asked respondents to place themselves on a five-category proficiency scale.

Data sources: Statistics New Zealand (2002b) New Zealand Census of Population and Dwellings: National Summary, Table 13a; Statistics New Zealand (2006) QuickStats National Highlights: Census 2006, Tables 1, 9, 10; Statistics New Zealand (2007) QuickStats About Māori: Census 2006, Tables 9, 10; Statistics New Zealand (2007) QuickStats About Culture and Identity: Census 2006, Table 19; and unpublished data from the 2006 Census. Te Puni Kōkiri (2001) Provisional results of the 2001 Survey of the Health of the Māori Language; Te Puni Kōkiri (2007) The Māori Language Survey Fact Sheet.

CI3 Language retention

Definition/formulae: The proportion of people who can speak the "first language" (excluding English) of their ethnic group, for ethnic groups (other than Māori) with an established resident population in New Zealand, as recorded in the 2001 Census. The ability to speak a language is defined as being able to hold an everyday conversation in that language. First language refers to an indigenous language associated with a given ethnicity rather than the first language of an individual.

Several criteria were used to identify ethnic groups with an established resident population in New Zealand. These included total population size, years since the group’s arrival in New Zealand and the age distribution and birthplace (overseas and within New Zealand) of group members. These variables provide a measure of the influence of time and of the demographic characteristics of the groups. Each variable was applied independently to a large list of ethnic groups from which 15 were selected under the broad categories of Pacific peoples, Asian and European. To be selected, a group needed to have: a New Zealand resident population of over 2,000 people; a broad age distribution to investigate the impact of age on language retention; and sufficient numbers born in New Zealand to make meaningful comparisons with overseas-born residents.

Limitations of data: While a direct link can usually be made between a language and an ethnic group, this is not always the case. Some ethnicities are associated with several languages and one language can span several ethnicities. While English is an official language of some groups selected in these tables, the 2001 Census does not distinguish between different varieties of the English language. English has therefore been excluded as a first language within these tables. Because the census variables for both ethnic group and language spoken allow more than one response, there may be some individuals who appear in more than one ethnic group category.

Data source: Statistics New Zealand (2004a) Concerning Language.

Leisure and Recreation

L1 Satisfaction with leisure time

Definition/formulae: The proportion of people aged 15 years and over who are "satisfied" or "very satisfied" with their leisure time, according to the Quality of Life Survey 2006.

Limitations of data: For more information see PW5 Satisfaction with work-life balance.

Data source: Quality of Life Survey 2006. For more information see PW5 Satisfaction with work-life balance.

L2 Participation in sport and active leisure

Definition/formulae: The proportion of adults aged 15 years and over who were sufficiently physically active, as defined by the Sport and Recreation Continuous Monitoring Survey. Being sufficiently physically active means they took part in at least 2.5 hours of physical activity and did five or more sessions (half an hour or more) in the seven days before being interviewed. Highly active means doing some vigorous physical activity during the week in addition to the requirements for being rated as sufficiently physically active.

While based on the validated face-to-face administered New Zealand Physical Activity Questionnaire (Short Form NZPAQ-SF), the Continuous Monitor is a telephone administered survey of New Zealanders aged 15 years and over.

Limitations of data: The Continuous Monitor administers the NZPAQ-SF by telephone and is self reported. Self-report methods typically result in overestimated levels of activity. Furthermore, telephone administered surveys appear to overestimate overall activity levels more than other survey types (eg face-to-face surveys). However, irrespective of the method used, differences reported between groups (eg sex, age and ethnicity) are the same.

Data source: Sport and Recreation New Zealand (May 2007) Overcoming Obstacles to Action 2006.

L3 Participation in cultural and arts activities

Definition/formulae: The proportion of the population aged 15 years and over who experienced a cultural activity as measured in the 2002 Cultural Experiences Survey. Respondents were asked to report on activities they experienced over either a 12-month period (for goods and services accessed or experienced relatively infrequently) or a four-week recall period (for activities experienced on a more regular basis). The survey was undertaken as a supplement to the 2002 March-quarter Household Labour Force Survey.

Limitations of data: This was an ad hoc survey, and is not comparable with the indicator in The Social Report 2001. The focus of this survey was on experience/consumption; it did not include participation such as acting or performing.

Data source: Statistics New Zealand (2002a) 2002 Cultural Experiences Survey.

Physical Environment

EN1 Air quality

Definition/formulae: The level of ambient concentrations of PM10 averaged annually are reported for five major urban centres in New Zealand. These levels are compared with the government’s PM10 guideline value of 20µg/m3 (20 micrograms per cubic metre) averaged annually. PM10 is particulate matter that is less than 10 microns in diameter.

Limitations of data: Data is reported only at specific sites in the five major cities and does not always represent the pollution levels that will be experienced over an entire town or city. The data, being so location-specific, cannot be compared with an OECD median. In September 2005, new air quality standards based on daily average PM10 concentrations were introduced. Regional and unitary authorities have declared 69 "airsheds" where air quality may, or is known to, exceed the standards for PM10 or may require management in the future. When sufficient data is available, we will report against these standards also.

Any data used in this report that may be subject to volatile loss has been adjusted by a regionally-determined factor, where available.

Data source: Collated by the Ministry for the Environment from regional council publications.

EN2 Drinking water quality

Definition/formulae: The 2000 Drinking Water Standards for New Zealand (DWSNZ) requires that all water leaving the treatment plant must be free of both faecal coliform bacteria (including E. coli) and Cryptosporidium. Additionally, adequate monitoring and the use of a registered laboratory are required to demonstrate full compliance with this standard. The indicator is the proportion of the total population whose water supply complies with the 2000 DWSNZ for E. coli and Cryptosporidium.

Limitations of data: Drinking water rated not fully compliant may be the result of failing one of the two microbiological criteria, of failing to adequately demonstrate compliance by using a non-registered laboratory, or of no or inadequate monitoring.

Data source: Water Information New Zealand Database March 2007.

Safety

SS1 Intentional injury child mortality

Definition/formulae: The number of people who have died as the result of assault or intentional injury, per 100,000 population.

The data was drawn from the following International Classification of Diseases codes: ICD-9, E960–E969 (up to 1999); ICD-10, X85–Y09 (from 2000).

Limitations of data: Because of the changes in the classification of ethnicity in death-registration data since September 1995, ethnicity data for 1996 and later years is not comparable with data from before 1996.

Data sources: New Zealand Health Information Service, Deaths from Homicide and injury purposely inflicted by other persons (Assault mortality data in ICD-10), 1948–2003 and provisional data for 2004. UNICEF (2003) A League Table of Child Maltreatment Deaths in Rich Nations, Innocenti Report Card, No 5 Table 1(a) p 4. OECD (2005) OECD Health Data 2005, StatLink to Data for Chart 1.19, p 29.

SS2 Criminal victimisation

Definition/formulae: The proportion of the population aged 15 years and over who had been victims of one or more incidents of criminal offending in 2005 as measured by the New Zealand Crime and Safety Survey 2006 (NZCASS). The survey covers people in private households. It does not cover commercial victimisation, "victimless" crimes (such as drug or alcohol abuse), or crimes against people less than 15 years old.

Limitations of data: Changes in survey design limit the comparisons that can be made between NZCASS and the two earlier surveys, the 1996 and 2001 New Zealand National Survey of Crime Victims.

The overall response rate in the 2006 NZCASS was 59 percent in the main sample and 56 percent in the Māori booster sample. The respective figures in the 2001 survey were 65 percent and 57 percent and in the 1996 survey, 56 percent and 66 percent. In the authors’ view, it is difficult to say how the small drop in the response rate in the 2006 NZCASS has affected risk estimates (Mayhew and Reilly, p 23).

Victimisation surveys are subject to a number of methodological limitations such as selective recounting and differences between groups in willingness to report offences, particularly offences of a sexual or domestic nature where the offender is known. There are also limitations in asking people to remember victimisation incidents and to locate them accurately in time.

A victimisation survey will give a higher count of crime because it counts unreported crime. A third of all NZCASS offences became known to the police. Offences regarded as serious were more likely to be reported, but there was a wide variation between offence types, with 84 percent of vehicle thefts being reported compared with 9 percent of sexual offences (Mayhew and Reilly, p 35).

Data source: Mayhew, P and Reilly, J (2007) New Zealand Crime and Safety Survey 2006: Key Findings.
SS3 Perceptions of safety

Definition/formulae: The proportion of people who reported that fear of crime had a moderate or high impact on their quality of life (scoring its effect at 4 or higher on a scale from 0–10, where 0 is no effect and 10 is total effect), as measured by the New Zealand Crime and Safety Survey 2006 (NZCASS). 
The data comes from the survey question "How much is your own quality of life affected by fear of crime, on a scale from 0 to 10, where 0 is no effect and 10 is total effect on your quality of life?" The overall response rate in the 2006 NZCASS was 59 percent in the main sample and 56 percent in the Māori booster sample.

Limitations of data: The question elicits a subjective assessment of the extent to which fear of crime affects respondents’ quality of life, which is also subjectively defined. While the question demonstrates an ability to differentiate between groups, it is not a reliable measure of the actual status of respondents. Also, although the results reflect people’s perceptions of their own situation in a general and ongoing way, they may be influenced by significant events and subject to fluctuation over time.

Data source: Mayhew, P and Reilly, J (forthcoming) New Zealand Crime and Safety Survey 2006: Community Safety.

SS4 Road casualties

Definition/formulae: Number of deaths caused by motor vehicles per 100,000 population. Number of persons injured as a result of motor vehicle crashes as reported to the police, per 100,000 population. Pedestrians or cyclists killed or injured by motor vehicles are included.

The data was drawn from the following International Classification of Diseases codes: ICD-9, 810–819 (1996–1999); ICD-10, V01–V89 (2000).

Limitations of data: The collection of ethnicity data changed during 1995 for both mortality and hospitalisation data. For mortality data, the basis of ethnicity has changed from a biological concept to a concept of self-identification; in mid-1995 hospitalisation data recorded multiple ethnic groups, whereas previously only one ethnic group could be recorded. Consequently, a comparison of 1996 ethnic-specific data with previous years is misleading: 1996 is the start of a new time series for ethnic-specific data.

Because of a revision of the International Classification of Diseases, rates for 2000 are not comparable with rates for 1996–1999.

Data sources: Ministry of Transport; Land Transport New Zealand; New Zealand Health Information Service; New Zealand Travel Surveys; Statistics New Zealand; International Road Traffic and Accident Database (OECD), Issued September 2005. Road casualty data comes from two main sources: injury data from the traffic crash reports completed by police officers who attend the fatal and injury crashes; and mortality and hospitalisation data from the New Zealand Health Information Service (NZHIS). Ethnic-specific rates of death or hospitalisation are only available from NZHIS. The New Zealand Travel Survey 1997/1998 was based on a sample of approximately 14,000 people and the survey report compared results from a similar survey conducted in 1989/1990.

Social Connectedness

SC1 Telephone and internet access in the home

Definition/formulae: The proportion of the population with telephone and internet access in the home, as measured by the 2000 and 2004 New Zealand Living Standards Surveys.

The 2000 survey was in two parts: one of 3,060 people aged 65 years and over and the other of 3,682 working-age adults (18–64 years). Both surveys involved face-to-face interviews with nationwide representative samples. The 2004 survey was a nationally representative sample of 4,989 respondents answering on behalf of their economic family.

Family ethnicity is defined in this indicator by the presence of an adult of a particular ethnic group. The figures for families defined in this way are not mutually exclusive.

Note: The data in the international comparison section of this indicator differs from that included in The Social Report 2006 due to a revision of the data.

Data sources: Ministry of Social Development 2004, and revised 2000, Living Standards Surveys, unpublished analysis results produced by the Ministry of Social Development. International comparison: OECD (2007) OECD Factbook 2007: Science and Technology, Computer and Internet Access by Households, p51.

SC2 Regular contact with family/friends

Definition/formulae: The proportion of the population who had family or friends over for a meal at least once a month, as measured by the 2000 and 2004 New Zealand Living Standards Surveys.

The 2000 survey was in two parts: one of 3,060 people aged 65 years and over and the other of 3,682 working-age adults (18–64 years). Both surveys involved face-to-face interviews with nationwide representative samples. The 2004 survey was a nationally representative sample of 4,989 respondents answering on behalf of their economic family.

Family ethnicity is defined in this indicator by the presence of an adult of a particular ethnic group. The figures for families defined in this way are not mutually exclusive.

Data source: Ministry of Social Development 2004, and revised 2000, Living Standards Surveys, unpublished analysis results produced by the Ministry of Social Development.

SC3 Trust in others

Definition/formulae: The proportion of the population who report people can "almost always" or "usually" be trusted, as reported in the Quality of Life Survey 2006.

Limitations of data: For more information see PW5 Satisfaction with work-life balance.

Data source: Quality of Life Survey Team (2007) Quality of Life Survey 2006 (data analysis by the Ministry of Social Development). For more information see PW5 Satisfaction with work-life balance and United Kingdom Performance and Innovation Unit (2002).

SC4 Loneliness

Definition/formulae: The proportion of the population who are lonely "sometimes", "most of the time", or "always", as reported in the Quality of Life Survey 2006.

Limitations of data: For more information see PW5 Satisfaction with work-life balance.

Data source: Quality of Life Survey Team (2007) Quality of Life Survey 2006 (data analysis by the Ministry of Social Development). For more information see PW5 Satisfaction with work-life balance.

SC5 Contact between young people and their parents

Definition/formulae: The percentage of secondary school students who reported in 2001 that most weeks they got enough time to spend with Mum and/or Dad (or someone who acts as Mum and/or Dad).

Limitations of data: Estimates from sample surveys are subject to error. The achieved sample size for the Youth2000 survey was 9,699 students, 4 percent of the total 2001 New Zealand secondary school roll.

Data sources: Adolescent Health Research Group (2003a) New Zealand Youth: A Profile of their Health and Wellbeing, Table on p 46; Adolescent Health Research Group (2003b) New Zealand Youth: A Profile of their Health and Wellbeing: Regional reports.