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Notes & References:



  1. Durie (2001)
  2. Royal Commission on Social Policy, vII p472
  3. Disaggregation by ethnicity is problematic. Definitions of ethnicity are inconsistent across data sources and change over time. The way in which we present the data is constrained by the way in which it has been collected
  4. The "Big Cities" group comprises 12 major metropolitan territorial local authorities: Auckland, Rodney, North Shore, Waitakere, Manukau, Tauranga, Hamilton, Wellington, Porirua, Hutt, Christchurch and Dunedin. The group jointly commissions the "Quality of Life" survey which collects comparable information on social, economic and environmental outcomes within each of the urban areas. In 2004, the survey was undertaken in partnership with the Ministry of Social Development and the survey now provides a national sample as well as city samples


  1. Statistics New Zealand (2004f)
  2. Statistics New Zealand (2005a)
  3. Statistics New Zealand (2004b) p33
  4. These figures are based on 2004-based "medium" projections (series 5), assuming medium fertility, medium mortality and a long-term annual net migration gain of 10,000
  5. These figures are based on "medium" projections (series 6), assuming medium fertility, medium mortality, medium inter-ethnic mobility and medium long-term annual net migration of -2,500 for Māori (from 2002), 500 for Pacific peoples (from 2002), -5,000 for Europeans (from 2005) and 14,000 for the Asian population (from 2009). There are no projections for the other ethnic groups, which together made up less than 1 percent of the population in 2001
  6. The family data relates to families within households. In official statistics, a family is defined as two or more people living in the same household who comprise either a couple, with or without children, or one parent and their children. The children do not have partners or children of their own living in the same household. People who were temporarily away from home on census night are included as part of the family. There is no data available on parents and children who live in different households
  7. Disability is defined as any restriction or lack (resulting from impairment) of ability to perform an activity in the manner or within the range considered normal for a human being. People were not considered to have a disability if an assistive device (such as glasses) completely eliminated their limitation. A concept of time was also introduced as a filter – the limitation must have lasted for, or be expected to last for, at least six months or more. See Ministry of Health (2004c) p55
  8. Ministry of Health (2004c)
  9. In part these figures reflect the older age distribution of people with disabilities and that older people tend to be more poorly qualified, and to be on low incomes


  1. Howden-Chapman and Tobias (2000)
  2. Ministry of Health (1999a) p351
  3. Tobias and Cheung (2003)
  4. OECD (2004a) Table 1
  5. 2001 figures have been revised and are still provisional
  6. Age-standardised rates are rates in which there has been an adjustment to take account of differences in the age distribution of the populations being compared
  7. Beautrais (2000), cited in Ministry of Health (2003a) p6
  8. New Zealand Health Information Service and World Health Organisation [May 2005]
  9. World Health Organisation, op cit
  10. Ministry of Health (1999a) p344
  11. Ministry of Health (2003b) p12
  12. Howden-Chapman and Tobias (2000) p54
  13. OECD (2003b)
  14. Ministry of Health (2003b) p12
  15. The use of different cut points for ethnic groups is under review by the Ministry of Health
  16. Cole et al (2000)
  17. Ministry of Health (2002a) p12
  18. Ministry of Health (2004b) p14
  19. Ministry of Health (2004b) p77
  20. Ministry of Health (2004b) p36
  21. Ministry of Health (2004a), Figure 57 p88
  22. OECD (2004a)

Knowledge and Skills

  1. See, for example, Wylie (1999)
  2. OECD (2000b) p294
  3. Wylie (1999) and Boocock (1995)
  4. OECD (2000b) p294
  5. OECD (2004d)
  6. Ministry of Education (2001b)
  7. Ministry of Education (2001b)
  8. For the purposes of calculating New Zealand's performance relative to the OECD median, Switzerland’s score was excluded as it had three separate entries – French, Italian, and German
  9. OECD (2000a)
  10. The Māori and Non-Māori total tertiary participation rates in this section have been age-standardised to the estimated total resident population aged 15 and over, as at 30 June 2003
  11. OECD (2004d)

Paid Work

  1. This includes wages and other payments to employees and entrepreneurial income, 1999 Statistics New Zealand data, cited in Department of Labour (1999)
  2. Wilson (1999)
  3. OECD (2004b) p315 and OECD (2005b) p16
  4. OECD (2004b) p315
  5. OECD (2004b) pp294–296

Economic Standard of Living

  1. Royal Commission on Social Security in New Zealand (1972)
  2. Statistics New Zealand (2001c) Table 1 p15 and Table 4 p17. Per capita value calculated by MSD
  3. For a description of the Gini co-efficient, see Statistics New Zealand (1999) p118
  4. Forster M and d’Ercole M M (2005) pp61–62 (with corrections for New Zealand after publication)
  5. Taken from Figure 6 p22 in Forster and d’Ercole (2005) using corrected New Zealand data released after the publication of the source document
  6. Robust data is not available for low-income households by household characteristics (such as ethnicity)
  7. Baker et al (2000)
  8. Statistics New Zealand (2003b) p33
  9. Percentages do not add to 100 as some people identified with more than one ethnic group
  10. Persons who received income support in the 12 months before the census. Excludes those who received ACC or New Zealand Superannuation

Civil and Political Rights

  1. Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade (1998)
  2. The 1988 Royal Commission on Social Policy found that New Zealanders felt wellbeing was strongly associated with the ability to make choices and to not have choices imposed on them. Royal Commission on Social Policy (1988)
  3. For example, see the section on New Zealand in the United States State Department Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labour 2003 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices
    27783.htm [May 2005]
  4. Human Rights Commission [June 2005]
  5. Marsh and Sahin-Dikmen (2002) pp40–41
  6. International Institute of Democracy and Electoral Assistance [16 June 2004]
  7. Inter-Parliamentary Union [16 June 2004]

Cultural Identity

  1. Durie et al (2002) and Durie (1999)
  2. Statistics New Zealand (2001b)
  3. ACNielsen (2005)
  4. NZ On Air (1999) p3
  5. All those who identified as Māori in the census are counted as part of the Māori ethnic group in this indicator
  6. "Well" or "very well" refers to being able to talk naturally and confidently in Māori about domestic or community subjects without making errors. "Fairly well" refers to being able to communicate their ideas in Māori most of the time but they may make some grammatical errors. "Not very well" refers to being able to give simple instructions in Māori and maintain basic question and answer sequences
  7. The census is a total response question and the high proportion of Pacific peoples who can speak Māori may reflect the high proportion of people who identified with both ethnic groups in the last census. This is also the case for the European ethnic group

Physical Environment

  1. The 1988 Royal Commission on Social Policy identified "guardianship of the physical resource" as a major part of the "safe prospect" aspect of social wellbeing
  2. Ministry of Health (2005b)
  3. Statistics New Zealand (1993) p83
  4. Statistics New Zealand (1993)


  1. Morris et al (2003) pp222–224
  2. National Research Council (1993)
  3. National Road Safety Committee (2000)
  4. Morris et al (2003) p145
  5. 2004 injury data is provisional
  6. Land Transport Safety Authority (2000)
  7. International Road Traffic and Accident Database (OECD) March 2005 [March 2005]

Social Connectedness

  1. Spellerberg (2001)
  2. Donovan and Halpern (2002) p27
  3. Noll and Berger-Schmitt (2000)
  4. OECD (2001)
  5. Knack and Keefer (1997) cited in United Kingdom Performance and Innovation Unit (2002) [June 2005]


  1. The indicators for which we have comparable data are: life expectancy, smoking, participation in early childhood education, school leavers with higher qualifications, adult educational attainment, unemployment, employment, median hourly earnings, workplace accidents, population with low incomes, household crowding, voter turnout, representation of women in government, Māori language speakers, language retention, adult participation in sport and active leisure, road casualties, internet access and contact with parents
  2. The regional comparisons discussed here exclude contact with parents as this information is available for only some regions