Latest Social Report 2016 | Previous reports | Contact us

Notes & References:



  1. Durie (2001).
  2. Royal Commission on Social Policy (1988), vol II p 472.
  3. Disaggregation by ethnicity is problematic. Definitions of ethnicity are inconsistent across data sources and change over time. The way in which we present the data is constrained by the way in which it has been collected.
  4. The Big Cities group comprises 12 major metropolitan territorial local authorities: Auckland, Rodney, North Shore, Waitakere, Manukau, Tauranga, Hamilton, Wellington, Porirua, Hutt, Christchurch and Dunedin. The group jointly commissioned the Quality of Life in New Zealand's Largest Cities Surveys which collected comparable information on social, economic and environmental outcomes within each of the urban areas. From 2004, the Quality of Life Survey has been done in partnership with the Ministry of Social Development. The survey now provides a national sample as well as city samples.


  1. Statistics New Zealand (2004c).
  2. Statistics New Zealand (2005a).
  3. Statistics New Zealand (2007f) p 33.
  4. These figures are based on 2004-based medium projections (series 5), assuming medium fertility, medium mortality and a long-term annual net migration gain of 10,000.
  5. These figures are based on medium projections (series 6), assuming medium fertility, medium mortality, medium inter-ethnic mobility and medium long-term annual net migration of -2,500 for Māori (from 2002), 500 for Pacific peoples (from 2002), -5,000 for Europeans (from 2005) and 14,000 for the Asian population (from 2009). There are no projections for the other ethnic groups, which together made up less than 1 percent of the population in 2001.
  6. Comparability between 2001 and 2006 data may be affected by a change in the census question. Before 2006, the census asked whether anyone who lived in the dwelling owned it with or without a mortgage. The 2006 Census included an additional question on whether any of the occupants held the dwelling in a family trust. People who did hold the dwelling in a trust in 2006 have been counted as owning the dwelling. In previous years, some people in this category may have simply said they did not own the dwelling and would not have been counted as homeowners. Consequently, the actual decline in home ownership between 2001 and 2006 may have been slightly greater than the census figures indicate.
  7. The family data relates to families within households. In official statistics, a family is defined as two or more people living in the same household who comprise either a couple, with or without children, or one parent and their children. The children do not have partners or children of their own living in the same household. People who were temporarily away from home on census night are included as part of the family. There is no data available on parents and children who live in different households.
  8. More information on speakers of te reo Māori is provided in the Māori language speakers indicator.
  9. Disability is defined as any restriction or lack (resulting from impairment) of ability to perform an activity in the manner or within the range considered normal for a human being. People were not considered to have a disability if an assistive device (such as glasses) completely eliminated their limitation. A concept of time was also introduced as a filter – the limitation must have lasted for, or be expected to last for, at least six months or more. See Ministry of Health (2004c) p 55.
  10. Ministry of Health (2004c).
  11. In part, these figures reflect the older age distribution of people with disabilities and that older people tend to be more poorly qualified and to be on low incomes.


  1. Howden-Chapman and Tobias (2000).
  2. Ministry of Health (1999a) p 351.
  3. Tobias and Cheung (2003).
  4. OECD (2006c). 
  5. 2003 figures have been revised; 2004 data is provisional.
  6. Three-year moving average age-standardised rates are the average age-standardised rates for rolling three-year periods; that is, 1985–1987, 1986–1988, 1987–1989, etc. The three-year moving averages are plotted on the mid-point year. For example, the 2002–2004 three-year moving average is plotted on the year 2003. Rates based on individual years can show a lot of variation when numbers are small. By using the three-year moving average this variation is "smoothed" so the underlying trends over time can be more clearly shown. Age-standardised rates are rates that have been adjusted to take account of differences in the age distribution of the populations being compared. The reference population used has changed from Segi’s world standard population to the World Health Organization world standard population. This reflects a change in the best practice standard used by the Ministry of Health’s Public Health Intelligence group who published Suicide Facts: 2004–2005.
  7. These are three-year moving average age-standardised rates.
  8. Ministry of Health (2006b) p 14.
  9. The international rates are annual rates and were calculated by Public Health Intelligence (Ministry of Health) using the data available from the World Health Organization. These rates are therefore different to those used elsewhere in this chapter and more recent than most of those published in Suicide Facts: 2004–2005 Data. The rates refer to the following years: Finland, Germany, Japan, Norway, Netherlands and the UK: 2004; Australia, Canada, France, New Zealand : 2003; Sweden, US: 2002; Denmark: 2001.
  10. World Health Organization (2004).
  11. Ministry of Health (1999a) p 344.
  12. Ministry of Health (2006c) Table C2 p 39.
  13. Howden-Chapman and Tobias (2000) p 54.
  14. OECD (2006c).  
  15. OECD (2006c).
  16. Cole et al (2000).
  17. Ministry of Health (2002) p 12.
  18. Ministry of Health (2004b) pp 24, 25, 45.
  19. Ministry of Health (2004b) p 77.
  20. Ministry of Health (2004b) p 36.
  21. It is difficult to establish trends on only a small number of surveys with limited comparability.
  22. Ministry of Health (2004a), Figure 57 p 88.
  23. OECD (2006c). 

Knowledge and Skills

  1. See, for example, Wylie (1999).
  2. OECD (2006a).
  3. Wylie (1999) and Boocock (1995).
  4. OECD (2006a).
  5. Due to methodological changes in the allocation of attainment levels in 2004, the percentage of leavers with qualifications higher than NCEA Level 1 in 2004 is not comparable with other years and has been omitted. See Ministry of Education (2006) School leavers with NCEA Level 2 or above, p2.
  6. OECD (2006a).
  7. OECD (2006a).

Paid Work

  1. This includes wages and other payments to employees and entrepreneurial income. 1999 Statistics New Zealand data, cited in Department of Labour (1999).
  2. Wilson (1999).
  3. OECD (2007b).
  4. OECD (2006d) p 267 (excludes Iceland, for which there was no 2005 figure at the time of publication).
  5. OECD (2006d) pp 248–250.
  6. 2003 figures have been revised by Statistics New Zealand. 

Economic Standard of Living

  1. Royal Commission on Social Security in New Zealand (1972).
  2. Revised data has moved Greece ahead of New Zealand, lowering New Zealand's ranking from 21st to 22nd for the years 2000–2005.
  3. Statistics New Zealand (2001c) Table 1 p 15, Table 4 p 17. Per capita value calculated by the Ministry of Social Development.
  4. For a description of the Gini co-efficient, see Statistics New Zealand (1999) p 118.
  5. Forster M and d’Ercole M M (2005) pp 61–62 (with corrections for New Zealand after publication).
  6. Taken from Figure 6 p 22 in Forster and d’Ercole (2005) using corrected New Zealand data released after publication of the source document.
  7. Robust data is not available for low-income households by household characteristics (such as ethnicity).
  8. Baker et al (2000).
  9. The trend in household crowding for the total population cannot be inferred from the trends for the ethnic groupings because some census respondents did not provide ethnicity data.
  10. Statistics New Zealand (2003b) p 33.
  11. Percentages do not add to 100 as some people identified with more than one ethnic group.
  12. Persons who received income support in the 12 months before the census. Excludes those who received ACC or New Zealand Superannuation.

Civil and Political Rights

  1. Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade (1998).
  2. The 1988 Royal Commission on Social Policy found that New Zealanders felt wellbeing was strongly associated with the ability to make choices and to not have choices imposed on them. Royal Commission on Social Policy (1988).
  3. For example, see the section on New Zealand in the United States State Department Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labour 2003 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices.
  4. Human Rights Commission (2006).
  5. Marsh and Sahin-Dikmen (2002) pp 40–41.
  6. Inter-Parliamentary Union, PARLINE database, Last election.
  7. Inter-Parliamentary Union, Women in National Parliaments.
  8. These figures exclude Licensing and Land Trusts.

Cultural Identity

  1. Durie et al (2002) and Durie (1999).
  2. Statistics New Zealand (2001b).
  3. ACNielsen (2005).
  4. NZ On Air (1999) p 3.
  5. All those who identified as Māori in the census are counted as part of the Māori ethnic group in this indicator.
  6. "Very well" refers to being able to talk about almost anything in Māori. "Well" refers to being able to talk about many things in Māori. "Fairly well" refers to being able to talk about some things in Māori. "Not very well" refers to only being able to talk about simple/basic things in Māori.
  7. The census ethnicity question is a multiple-response question and the high proportion of Pacific peoples who can speak Māori may reflect the high proportion of people who identified with both ethnic groups in the last census. This is also the case for the European ethnic group. In this section, "New Zealanders" have been included with the European ethnic group, using customised data that counts individuals once only.

Physical Environment

  1. The 1988 Royal Commission on Social Policy identified "guardianship of the physical resource" as a major part of the "safe prospect" aspect of social wellbeing.
  2. In the Ministry of Health’s Annual Review of Community Drinking Water Quality in New Zealand 2005 the compliance rate for Cryptosporidium with the 2000 Drinking Water standards is 71 percent, which is 10 percent higher than the compliance rate reported in The Social Report 2007. The data used in the social report has had the "double counting" caused by communities sometimes being serviced by more than one drinking water treatment plant removed. This results in a lower compliance rate. The Ministry of Health will use the same approach as the social report in future annual reviews of drinking water quality. 
  3. Statistics New Zealand (1993) p 83.
  4. Statistics New Zealand (1993).


  1. Morris et al (2003) pp 222–224.
  2. National Road Safety Committee (2000).
  3. Mayhew and Reilly (2007) pp 24–26.
  4. Mayhew and Reilly (2007) p 54. The incidence figure for men for this type of offence [confrontational offences committed by partners] has a relative standard error between 15 percent to 25 percent and should be viewed with caution.
  5. 2005 injury data has been revised.
  6. Land Transport Safety Authority (2000).
  7. OECD (2007) International Road Traffic and Accident Database, at 20 May 2007.

Social Connectedness

  1. Spellerberg (2001).
  2. Donovan and Halpern (2002) p 27.
  3. Noll and Berger-Schmitt (2000).
  4. OECD (2007c).
  5. Statistics Canada (2004) and European Commission (2005).
  6. TNS Quality of Life Survey 2006, National Report One (2007) Figure 6.5.6 p 224.


  1. Mayhew and Reilly (2007) p 54. The incidence figure for men for this type of offence [confrontational offences committed by partners] has a relative standard error between 15 percent to 25 percent and should be viewed with caution.