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  1. Economic Development Indicators 2007 is available at:
  2. Environmental Health Indicators for New Zealand 2008 is available at:
  3. Environment New Zealand 2007 is available at: enz07-dec07/
  4. Measuring New Zealand’s Progress Using a Sustainable Development Approach: 2008 is available at:
  5. Children and Young People: Indicators of wellbeing in New Zealand 2008 is available at: our-work/publications-resources/monitoring/children-young-indicators-wellbeing/index.html
    Positive Ageing Indicators 2007 is available at:


  1. Statistics New Zealand (2010j) and final data accessed 14 May 2010
  2. Statistics New Zealand (2009d)
  3. Statistics New Zealand (2010g) These figures are from 2006-based medium ethnic population projections (Series 6, updated in April 2010), assuming medium fertility, medium mortality, medium inter-ethnic mobility and medium long-term annual net migration of -3,000 for the European or Other population (from 2013), -3,000 for the Māori population (from 2012), 12,000 for the Asian population (from 2010) and 500 for Pacific peoples (from 2008). For further information on the projection assumptions, see Statistics New Zealand (2010) National Ethnic Population Projections: 2006(base)–2026 update, pp 2 and 3.
  4. Statistics New Zealand (2010g) pp 6–8
  5. Statistics New Zealand (2010b)
  6. Statistics New Zealand (2009d) These figures are from 2009-based medium population projections (Series 5), assuming medium fertility, medium mortality and a long-term annual net migration gain of 10,000.
  7. Statistics New Zealand (2010g)
  8. The census data in this section refers to families with any dependent children usually resident in the household. A dependent child is a ‘child in a family nucleus’ who is under 18 years of age and who is not employed full time. Families refers to families within households. A family nucleus is defined as a couple, with or without child(ren), or one parent and their child(ren) usually resident in the same dwelling. The children do not have partners or children of their own living in the same household. People who usually live in a particular dwelling, and are members of a family nucleus in that dwelling, but who are absent on census night, are included, as long as they are reported as being absent by the reference person on the dwelling form. See Statistics New Zealand,, Family definitions.
  9. The United States Census Bureau family data series used for comparison excludes cohabiting parents from 2007 onwards. In previous years, they were counted as single (ie non-married) parents. The 2006 figure reported here has been adjusted to exclude cohabiting parents for better comparison with New Zealand data (see data sources). With cohabiting parents included, the United States figure for 2006 is 33 percent, the figure reported in the last three editions of this report. For further information about the change in the United States family data, see United States Census Bureau, Current Population Survey (CPS), 2007 March CPS, America’s Families and Living Arrangements, “Improvements to data collection about families in CPS 2007”:
  10. Comparability between 2001 and 2006 data may be affected by a change in the census question. The 2006 Census included an additional question on whether any of the household members held the dwelling in a family trust. Where this was the case, the household would have been counted as owning the dwelling. In 2001, households in this situation were instructed to say that they did not own the dwelling and so should not have been counted as homeowners. Consequently, the actual decline in home ownership between 2001 and 2006, with family trusts included, may have been slightly greater than the census figures indicate.
  11. More information on speakers of te reo Māori is provided in the Māori language speakers indicator.
  12. Disability is defined as any perceived limitation in activity resulting from a long-term condition or health problem; lasting or expected to last six months or more and not completely eliminated by an assistive device. See Statistics New Zealand (2007a) p 26.
  13. Statistics New Zealand (2007a)
  14. All the figures in this paragraph are for people in households.
  15. Adolescent Health Research Group (2008a) p 28


  1. Howden-Chapman and Tobias (2000)
  2. Ministry of Health (1999b) p 351
  3. Ministry of Health (2007)
  4. Babor et al (2001)
  5. Conner et al (2005)
  6. OECD (2010c)
  7. 2006 figures have been revised; 2007 data is provisional
  8. Age-standardised to the World Health Organization standard world population.
  9. Ministry of Health (2006a) p 14
  10. Ministry of Health (2009c) p 20. These countries have been selected because they are considered to have a reliable data collection process, and because they are the countries most often used in comparisons with New Zealand on health measures.
  11. The international rates are annual rates re-calculated by the Ministry of Health to enable geographic comparisons of data collected by the World Health Organization.
  12. Ministry of Health (1999b) p 344
  13. Ministry of Health (2006b) Table C2 p 39
  14. Ministry of Health (2009b) Data tables, Prevalence data, Age-standardised rates by gender and NZDep2006 quintile for current smokers.
  15. OECD (2010c) The New Zealand rate reported by the OECD (18.1 percent) is the crude daily smoking rate. This differs from the daily smoking rate published in the Ministry of Health’s report, A Portrait of Health: Key Results of the 2006/07 New Zealand Survey, which is the age-standardised rate (18.7 percent).
  16. OECD (2010c)
  17. The World Health Organization defines obesity as having a BMI greater than or equal to 30 kg/m2 (WHO 2000). In compliance with international practice, the same cut-off points have been used for all ethnic groups (Ministry of Health, 2008c, pp 104, 105).
  18. Cole et al (2000)
  19. Ministry of Health (2008c) p 104
  20. Rates for 1997 and 2002/2003 were revised by Public Health Intelligence, Ministry of Health.
  21. The rate for 2002 was revised by Public Health Intelligence, Ministry of Health.
  22. Ministry of Health (2004c) p 36
  23. OECD (2010c) The 12 countries which use actual measurements to estimate the prevalence of obesity are: Australia, Canada, Czech Republic, Ireland, Japan, Korea, Luxembourg, Mexico, New Zealand, Slovak Republic, United Kingdom, United States. Some of these countries also use the self-reporting method.
  24. Babor et al (2001)
  25. Conner et al (2005)
  26. Age-standardised rates have been used for comparison over time.
  27. OECD (2010b)

Knowledge and skills

  1. See, for example, Wylie (1999)
  2. OECD (2007b)
  3. Wylie (1999); Boocock (1995); Wylie et al (2001); Wylie et al (2004)
  4. OECD (2007b) 
  5. Due to methodological changes in the allocation of attainment levels in 2004, the percentage of leavers with qualifications higher than NCEA Level 1 in 2004 is not comparable with other years and has been omitted.
  6. OECD (2009a). The OECD data used here also includes international students. This group is not included in the analysis in this section.
  7. Ministry of Education (2001b)
  8. Satherley P, Lawes E and Sok S (2008b) pp 7, 9, 11
  9. Satherley P, Lawes E and Sok S (2008b) pp 16, 18, 21

Paid work

  1. Statistics New Zealand (2009e) p 3
  2. Wilson (1999)
  3. OECD (2010d) OECD Stats extract, Harmonised unemployment rate, accessed 26 May 2010
  4. OECD (2010a) Statistical Annex, Table H, p 292
  5. OECD (2010a) Statistical Annex, Table B, p 271

Economic standard of living

  1. Royal Commission on Social Security in New Zealand (1972)
  2. OECD (2010e). Between 2000 and 2004, New Zealand ranked 21st on real GDP per capita. A major revision of national accounts in Greece lifted real GDP per capita in that country, lowering New Zealand’s ranking from 21st to 22nd in subsequent years. See OECD (2007a) Chapter 1.
  3. Statistics New Zealand (2001b) Table 1 p 15, Table 4 p 17. Per person value calculated by the Ministry of Social Development.
  4. Perry B (2010) p 53
  5. For a description of the Gini coefficient, see Statistics New Zealand (1999) p 118.
  6. OECD (2008b) Table 1.A2.4
  7. OECD (2008b) Annex Table 5.A2.1
  8. While the data is robust enough to give a general indication of relativities between ethnic groups, the relatively small sample sizes for the non-European ethnic groups can lead to some volatility in trends for each group separately. Robust data is not available for low-income households by ethnicity.
  9. Baker et al (2000)
  10. Evans (2003)
  11. The trend in household crowding for the total population cannot be inferred from the trends for the ethnic groupings because some census respondents did not provide ethnicity data.
  12. Statistics New Zealand (2003) p 33
  13. Percentages do not add to 100 as some people identified with more than one ethnic group.
  14. People who received income support in the 12 months before the census. Excludes those who received ACC or New Zealand Superannuation.

Civil and political rights

  1. Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade (1998)
  2. The 1988 Royal Commission on Social Policy found that New Zealanders felt wellbeing was strongly associated with the freedom to make choices for oneself and to have a voice in decisions that affect them. Royal Commission on Social Policy (1988) Volume III Part One, pp 487–488
  3. For example, see the section on New Zealand in the United States State Department Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labour (2003) Country Reports on Human Rights Practices.
  4. Human Rights Act 1993, Part 2, section 21. Reprint as at 1 October 2008.
  5. Marsh and Sahin-Dikmen (2002) pp 40, 41
  6. Inter-Parliamentary Union, PARLINE database, Last election
  7. From 1989, overall turnout data is based on mayoral election turnout only. See Department of Internal Affairs (2006) p 17.
  8. Inter-Parliamentary Union, Women in National Parliaments
  9. These figures exclude Trusts, which are not local authorities. See Department of Internal Affairs (2009) p 10.
  10. The 1989 elections were the first to be held following a major restructuring of local government.
  11. European Commission (2009)

Cultural identity

  1. Durie et al (2002); Durie (1999)
  2. AGB Nielsen Media Research (2010)
  3. ACNielsen (2005)
  4. NZ On Air (1999) p 3
  5. All those who identified as Māori in the census are counted as part of the Māori ethnic group in this indicator.
  6. “Very well” means being able to talk about almost anything in Māori. “Well” means being able to talk about many things in Māori. “Fairly well” refers to being able to talk about some things in Māori. “Not very well” refers to only being able to talk about simple/basic things in Māori.
  7. The census ethnicity question is a multiple-response question and the high proportion of Pacific peoples who can speak Māori may reflect the high proportion of people who identified with both ethnic groups in the last census. This is also the case for the European ethnic group. In this section, “New Zealanders” have been included with the European ethnic group, using customised data that counts individuals once only.

Leisure and recreation

  1. Australia Council for the Arts (2010)


  1. Morris et al (2003) pp 222–224
  2. National Road Safety Committee (2000)
  3. OECD (2010c)
  4. Mayhew and Reilly (2007b) pp 24–26
  5. Mayhew and Reilly (2007b) p 54. The incidence figure for men for this type of offence [confrontational offences committed by partners] has a relative standard error between 15 percent and 25 percent and should be viewed with caution.
  6. The 2008 injury rate has been revised, using final data.
  7. OECD/International Transport Forum (2009)

Social connectedness

  1. Spellerberg (2001)
  2. Noll and Berger-Schmitt (2000)
  3. Christakis and Fowler (2009)
  4. OECD (2009c)
  5. Adolescent Health Research Group (2008a) p 14
  6. Questions asked in Youth’07 and Youth2000 (conducted in 2001) surveys differ slightly. In 2001 students were asked: “Most weeks do you get to spend enough time with your Dad (or someone who acts as your Dad)?” In 2007 students were asked: “Do you get to spend enough time with him (your Dad or someone who acts as your Dad)?” Both surveys had the same response options.
  7. Statistics Canada (2004); European Commission (2005)
  8. Australian Bureau of Statistics (2009c)

Life satisfaction

  1. Giovannini, E., Hall, J. and Mira d'Ercole, M. (2007), p16. The "Istanbul Declaration", signed by representatives of a number of supranational bodies at a conference in Istanbul in 2007, refers to this emerging consensus.
  2. Diener, E. (1984). In psychology, a distinction is made between "cognitive judgements" (such as life evaluations) and "affects" (positive or negative feelings) but the distinction is often blurred and the terms life satisfaction and happiness are frequently used interchangeably in the research literature on subjective wellbeing.
  3. For example, the World Values Survey and the Gallup World Poll.
  4. Graham, C. (2008)
  5. Stiglitz, J.E., Sen, A. and Fitoussi, J-P. (2009), Chapter 2; Deaton, A. (2008)
  6. Kahneman, D. and Krueger, A.B. (2006); Stutzer, A. and Frey, B.S. (2010). Shortcomings noted in the literature include the susceptibility of self-reported measures of subjective wellbeing to mood, context and question order, and the finding that answers may reflect norms of social desirability and self-representation (people saying what they think they should). Also, the meaning of the underlying concept of "happiness" in much subjective wellbeing research is contested (Duncan, 2005).
  7. Deaton, A. (2008); Coombes, G. (2006)
  8. Diener, E. (1984); Graham, C. (2008); Stutzer, A. and Frey, B.S. (2010)


  1. 1995–1997 has been chosen for the reference period because it allows the maximum number of indicators to be compared over time, including those which use data from the 1996, 2001 and 2006 population censuses.
  2. NZDep gives a deprivation score to each small area of New Zealand, using socio-economic information from the five-yearly population census. Scores range from 1–10, where 1 equals the 10th of areas with the least deprived scores and 10 equals the 10th of areas with the most deprived scores. The range of scores can also be expressed as fifths (quintiles). This index is used for several indicators in the Health and Safety domains. (pp 8, 16)

    The school decile index is based on census information about the community from which a school draws its students. Decile 1 schools are the 10th of schools with the highest proportion of students from low socio-economic communities, while decile 10 schools are the 10th of schools with the lowest proportion of students from such areas. A school‘s decile does not indicate the overall socio-economic mix of the school.